· Egg protein
· Whey proteins:
– Whey protein concentrate
– Whey protein isolate
– Whey protein hydrolysate
· Vegetable proteins
– Soy protein
– Pea protein
· Meat protein
· Fish protein
Protein Advantages Disadvantages Absorption rate g / h Biological value
Whey proteins Inexpensive, mixes well with other components, has high amino acid composition and effectiveness, is quickly absorbed Rapid absorption makes it advisable to use only before and after training, and during the day only in combination with other proteins. 10-12 100
Casein Slowly absorbed, which allows you to maintain a high concentration of amino acids in the blood throughout the day, a good indicator of amino acid composition It dissolves poorly and tastes bad 4-6 80
Long absorbed, helps lower cholesterol, ideal for women Low efficiency and biological value, estrogenic activity 4 74
Milk protein Cheap, has a good indicator of amino acid composition Contains lactate, which sometimes impairs intestinal function 4.5 90
The highest amino acid composition and efficiency, closest to the ideal protein, average absorption rate, ideal for weight loss High price 9 100
Whole egg white has the highest digestibility and is considered the reference, against which all other proteins are evaluated. As you know, a chicken egg consists of protein, which is almost 100% composed of albumin (ovalbumin) and yolk, which contains 7 different proteins – albumin, ovoglobulin, ovomucoid, ovomucin, lysozyme, and avidin.
It should also be noted that eating a large number of raw chicken eggs is not recommended, as they contain an inhibitor (a substance that significantly slows down the digestion process) of the digestive enzyme trypsin. Moreover, the avidin protein contained in the yolk eagerly attaches to itself the vital biotin (vitamin H), forming a strong complex that is not digested and not absorbed by the body. Therefore, it is recommended to use chicken eggs only after heat treatment (at 70 ° C, the trypsin inhibitor is destroyed, and at 80 ° C active biotin is released from the biotin-avidin complex).
For the production of food additives, both whole egg white and egg albumin alone are used. Sports nutrition, made on the basis of egg white, is devoid of all the shortcomings of whole eggs, with the complete preservation of useful qualities, so the latter is considered one of the highest quality and effective in all respects. Relatively slow absorption makes it possible to consume egg white while reducing body weight, Types of proteins without fear of slowing down the process of losing weight.
Whey proteins (lactalbumin, lactoglobulin and immunoglobulin) have the highest cleavage rate among whole proteins. The concentration of amino acids and peptides in the blood increases sharply within the first hour after a meal based on whey proteins. In this case, the acid-forming function of the stomach does not change, which eliminates the violation of its work and the formation of gases. The digestibility of whey proteins is extremely high.
The amino acid composition of whey proteins is closest to the amino acid composition of human muscle tissue, and in terms of the content of essential amino acids and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs): Types of proteins valine, leucine and isoleucine, they surpass all other proteins of animal and vegetable origin. In addition, approximately 14% of whey proteins are in the form of hydrolysis products (amino acids, di-,
tri- and polypeptides), which are the initiators of digestion and are involved in the synthesis of most vital enzymes and hormones. Whey proteins also significantly lower blood cholesterol.
The main source of whey protein is sweet whey, which is formed in the production of rennet cheese. Sweet whey itself is not used in the production of food additives, which is associated with low protein content (about 5%) and the presence of a large amount of lactose (milk sugar) – the main substance that causes intolerance to dairy products by some people.
One of the types of proteins widely used by bodybuilders is calcium casein or casein, a complex protein that results from enzymatic capping of milk. Once in the human stomach, casein forms a clot that is digested for a long time and long-term provides the body with the necessary amino acids. At the same time, casein not only breaks down slowly compared to whey, it has the ability to slow down the digestion of other types of proteins, has less biological value, suppresses appetite and has a less pronounced anabolic effect. Micellar casein is gaining popularity, which has better absorption, solubility and taste, but a higher price.
It should be noted that low digestibility, as well as the slow passage of casein clots along the gastrointestinal tract, especially with increased physical exertion, make it less preferable than whey protein. Types of proteins, food additives created on the basis of casein, in all probability, are ineffective.
However, a way out can be found through the use of protein compositions based on casein and whey proteins. After appropriate studies, the maximum protein efficiency coefficient and the corresponding proportions of whey proteins and casein were determined. This proportion turned out to be a ratio of 63:37 with a protein efficiency coefficient of 3.49. The obtained value of biological value for this protein ratio turned out to be very high and, judging by the literature, not inferior to those for other high-value proteins of animal origin.
As for digestibility, as the content of whey proteins increased, it gradually increased. The data obtained confirmed the well-known fact of better digestibility of whey proteins by digestive enzymes compared with casein.
The proteins contained in plants, although often inferior, in combination with each other make up a complete protein. The highest content of complete proteins is in a combination of legumes and grains. Bean proteins – soy and pea, are rich in essential amino acids and have a value close to whey and egg proteins.
As a rule, highly purified plant protein isolates are used in sports nutrition. Poor absorption of crude vegetable protein is due to several reasons:
– Thick membranes of plant cells, often not affected by digestive juices;
– The presence of digestive enzyme inhibitors in some plants, for example, in legumes;
– Difficulty splitting plant proteins into amino acids.
Soy protein is well balanced in amino acids, including essential ones. After consumption of soy proteins, a clear decrease in blood cholesterol appears, therefore it is advisable to use them in the diet of overweight people, as well as people suffering from intolerance to dairy products. Soy contains vitamins and minerals necessary for the life of the body: vitamin E, the whole complex of vitamins B, potassium, zinc, iron,Types of proteins, phosphorus.
However, in a seemingly ideal product, there are also disadvantages. One such imperfection of soy protein is the presence of a trypsin digestive enzyme inhibitor. Its amount depends on the technology of processing soybeans.
You have also probably heard that soy protein in large doses is not recommended for men. This is not entirely true. Soy is rich in so-called phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens (Phytoestrogens) is a heterogeneous group of natural non-steroidal plant compounds that, due to their structure similar to estradiol, the human female sex hormone, can cause an estrogenic and/or anti-estrogenic effect. Experiments have shown that phytoestrogens are indeed able to bind to the same receptors as estrogens, only they act much weaker. If we take the effect of estradiol for 100, then the effect of phytoestrogens will be estimated as 0.001-0.2 (depending on the type of phytoestrogen).
Pea protein used in sports nutrition is a highly purified isolate with a protein content of 88-90%, with a high digestibility of 98%. Pea protein contains a large amount of non-essential and essential amino acids. In particular, it is the champion in the amino acid arginine and contains 8.7% per gram of protein,
which is higher than in any other source of protein, including soy (7.6%), egg protein (5.1%) casein (3.8%) and whey protein (2.3%). Arginine plays an important role in realizing muscle potential, as it helps to release growth hormone, is involved in the synthesis of creatine, in the process of nitric oxide formation, and even improves erectile function.
Pea protein is also rich in the essential amino acid lysine and the important amino acid glutamine. The benefits of pea protein can be enhanced when combined with other plant proteins, such as rice protein, as these products have complementary amino acid profiles. Pea protein contains about 18% BCAA, which is not much less than casein, which usually contains 20% BCAA.
Pea protein is often used in the diet of athletes who are vegetarian or vegan. Peas contain 1000 times less isoflavones – phytoestrogens than soy, which eliminates the risks of the influence of protein consumption on testosterone levels and makes pea protein preferred for male athletes. Peas are not included in the list of main allergens and products that have any contraindications, which allows people who are poorly tolerated with certain products (e.g. lactose / milk, gluten / cereals, soy, nuts, etc.) to use pea protein in its diet as an allergy-free source of protein.
Meat protein is extremely rich in protein (up to 85%), while almost half of this protein is represented by essential amino acids (~ 35%). The product has a good absorption rate, an extremely high level of absorption, almost zero fat content. Such a complex is suitable for any athlete and not only, without exception.
The use of fish protein isolates in the diet of athletes was supposed. During the study, the digestibility of fish isolate, fresh fish and casein was compared. It was found that the fish protein isolate is even much slower than casein is split into amino acids. The cleavage of the isolate to peptides did not stop even 3 hours after the introduction of the protein.
Today, the sports and medical nutrition market offers a huge variety of forms of protein-containing products: these are cocktails, both in powders and in finished form, with many different tastes, soups, energy bars, protein cookies, chocolate, protein pastes, nut halva, and all it can be bought at pharmacies. In addition to whole proteins, mixtures of all the necessary amino acids are offered – in the form of powders, liquid mixtures, and even ampoule forms. Moreover, not only mixtures of all amino acids are offered, but also products containing individual amino acids or a complex of several components: L-glutamine, which protects muscle tissue during intense exercise, BCAA amino acids, which form the basis of all muscle metabolism; a mixture of L-ornithine, L-arginine and L-lysine to stimulate the secretion of growth hormone, etc. Amino acid complexes are already almost digested protein. Therefore, they are absorbed most quickly.
Good research before moving to the buy supplements department in Balkapharm Online Store ensures that you don’t tend to the wrong steroid. Gender, age and other environmental factors are effective in manifesting side effects.